Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions

Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions is a groundbreaking satirical novella written by Edwin A. Abbott. Published in 1884, it has since become a classic in both mathematics and literature, captivating readers with its unique concept and thought-provoking narrative. In Flatland, Abbott introduces a two-dimensional world and uses it as a metaphor to critique the society and rigid caste system of Victorian England.


The story is set in a fictitious world called Flatland, where geometric shapes live and interact. The protagonist, A Square, is a humble square who lives in a two-dimensional realm called Flatland. As a member of the lower class, he faces numerous restrictions due to his shape and the social structure of the society.

A Square’s monotonous life takes an unexpected turn when he encounters a sphere from Spaceland, a three-dimensional world. The sphere visits Flatland and tries to explain the existence of a dimension beyond what the Flatlanders can perceive. A Square struggles to comprehend this concept but soon becomes fascinated by the idea of a world beyond Flatland.

Guided by the sphere, A Square embarks on a journey through other two-dimensional worlds and eventually visits Lineland, a one-dimensional world, and Pointland, a zero-dimensional world. Through these encounters, A Square’s understanding of dimensions expands, and he begins to question the limitations imposed by society and perception.

Upon returning to Flatland, A Square tries to share his newfound knowledge with his fellow Flatlanders. However, his ideas are met with resistance and disbelief, leading to dire consequences for him.

Reception and Influence

Flatland initially received mixed reviews upon its publication but has since gained worldwide recognition and acclaim. Over the years, it has become a significant work in the field of mathematics, exploring the concept of higher dimensions and challenging readers’ perspectives.

While Flatland is primarily recognized for its mathematical implications, it also serves as a social commentary and satire on Victorian society. Abbott cleverly uses the two-dimensional world as a metaphor for the rigid class structure, gender roles, and societal constraints prevalent during that era.

The novella’s unique blend of mathematics and social critique has earned it a place in various academic disciplines, including literature, mathematics, and philosophy. It has inspired numerous adaptations, including films, plays, and even video games.

Notable Characters

1. A Square – The main protagonist, who serves as a symbol of intellectual curiosity and rebellion against societal norms.

2. The Sphere – A resident of Spaceland who introduces A Square to the concept of higher dimensions.

3. Various geometric shapes – Representing different social classes and challenging the normative structure of Flatland.

Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions offers readers a unique and imaginative journey into a world beyond their own perceptions. By exploring the limitations of two-dimensional existence and critiquing social norms, Edwin A. Abbott encourages readers to question their own reality and consider the possibilities that lie beyond.

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